MAORI222-22B (TGA)

He Ao Hurihuri He Ao Tuakiri: Evolving Māori Culture and Identity

15 Points

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Paper Description

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Tikanga Māori is rooted in whakapapa and Māori narratives and has its origins in the past. However, customary practices have never been static. They have evolved and continue to evolve as society changes. The same can be said about how these changes have influenced an evolving Māori identity.

The aims of this paper are:

  • To expand on some of the basic understandings of significant concepts in a Māori worldview as introduced in MAORI102 (TIKA163) and MAORI150 (TTWA150);
  • To expand on the basic understanding of Māori culture and society and identity as it has developed from the traditional to the contemporary context;
  • To critically appraise Māori customary concepts and explore these through practical application of how these concepts are manifested.
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Paper Structure

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This is a Trimester B paper made up of four contact hours per week (2 x 2 hour classes), with the expectation that five additional hours outside of class time is necessary to read, research and write per week.

The information to complete this paper will be delivered in four ways:

  1. Through a series of face-to-face classes that will alert to the main themes and ideas associated with this paper;
  2. Through class discussions that will enable students to explore these themes in a group setting drawing on your own observations, experiences and readings;
  3. Through a programme of directed reading which should feed into class discussions and assignments. It is expected that all students will have read required readings from the course Reading List, the relevant material distributed in class or provided on Moodle prior to class so that we are able to discuss it;
  4. Through online resources via Moodle.

All face-to-face classes will be Panopto recorded for further revision however it is strongly encouraged that students attend classes in person to get the most from class discussion and wānanga.

COVID-19 parameters: Although our priority is to conduct face-to-face classes, if we need to conduct any classes via Zoom, this will be communicated to students by the lecturer at the earliest opportunity via Moodle.

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Learning Outcomes

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Students who successfully complete the paper should be able to:

  • Demonstrate a deeper understanding of Māori customary concepts in pre-European Māori contexts and cultural narratives
    Linked to the following assessments:
  • Determine and analyse the evolution of tikanga and identity over time through written critique
    Linked to the following assessments:
  • Understand, through practical application and reflective practice, relevant concepts in a Māori worldview, tikanga Māori and Māori identity
    Linked to the following assessments:
  • Identify and critique tikanga Māori and Māori identity application practices in contemporary contexts through discussion and research methods
    Linked to the following assessments:
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Assessment Components

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The internal assessment/exam ratio (as stated in the University Calendar) is 100:0. There is no final exam. The final exam makes up 0% of the overall mark.

The internal assessment/exam ratio (as stated in the University Calendar) is 100:0 or 0:0, whichever is more favourable for the student. The final exam makes up either 0% or 0% of the overall mark.

Component DescriptionDue Date TimePercentage of overall markSubmission MethodCompulsory
1. Short Answer Test
5 Aug 2022
9:00 AM
  • Online: Submit through Moodle
2. Essay
28 Aug 2022
9:00 PM
  • Online: Submit through Moodle
3. Group Video
6 Oct 2022
10:00 AM
  • Online: Submit through Moodle
4. Multimedia Mini-Podcasts
23 Oct 2022
9:00 PM
  • Online: Submit through Moodle
Assessment Total:     100    
Failing to complete a compulsory assessment component of a paper will result in an IC grade
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Required and Recommended Readings

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Required Readings

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Students will be directed to any required readings. These will be on the MAORI222-21B (TGA) Reading List posted on Moodle. All other readings are recommended and will be identified from time to time and posted on Moodle.

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Recommended Readings

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Barlow, C. (1994): Tikanga whakaaro: Key concepts in Māori culture. Auckland, N.Z: Oxford University Press.

Ka’ai, T. M., & Moorfield, J. C., & Reilly, M. P. J., & Mosley, S. (Eds.). (2010). Ki te Whaiao: An Introduction to Māori Culture and Society. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education (Original work published 2004).

Consedine, R., & J. (2001). Healing our history: The challenge of the Treaty of Waitangi. Auckland: Penguin.

Durie, M. (1994). Whaiora: Māori Health Development. Auckland: Oxford University Press.

Durie, M. (2001). Mauri ora: The dynamics of Māori health. Melbourne; Oxford: Oxford University Press.

King, M. (ed.). (1992) Te ao hurihuri: Aspects of Maoritanga. Auckland: Reed.

Mead, H. (2003). Tikanga Māori: Living by Māori values. Wellington, New Zealand: Huia.

Metge, J. (2001). Talking together = Kōrero tahi. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press with Te Matahauariki Institute.

Mulholland, M, Tawhai, V. M. H. (Eds.). (2010). Weeping Waters: the Treaty of Waitangi and constitutional change. Wellington, Aotearoa/New Zealand: Huia Publishers.

Orange, C. (2011). The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books Ltd.

Reilly, M., Duncan, S., Leoni, G.., Paterson, L., Carter, L., Rātima, M., & Rewi, P., (2018) Tē Kōparapara - an introduction to the Māori world. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

Salmond, A. (1975). Hui: A study of Maori ceremonial gatherings. Auckland: Reed.

Shirres, M. P. (1979). Te tangata: The human person. Auckland, N.Z: Accent Publications.

Walker, R. (2004). Ka whawhai tonu mātou - struggle without end. Auckland, N.Z: Penguin.

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Other Resources

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Other resources may be made available on Moodle from time to time
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Online Support

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This paper is supported by Moodle. Moodle is the eLearning platform of this university that is used to foster student interaction related to learning. This paper can be accessed by visiting


All on-campus workshops and tutorials will be recorded on Panopto for extra reference and for students who aren't able to attend these classes in person. They will be accessible through Moodle each week.


In the event that class cannot be conducted on campus for any reason, we will use Zoom. We will also use Zoom for guest lecturers who cannot make it in person.

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This paper has 4 contact hours weekly. Students are encouraged to attend all workshops and tutorials and complete the required readings. This paper is worth 15 points and has a workload of 150 hours (1 point is worth 10 hours). The 102 hours (8.5 hours per week) of self-directed learning is to be spent completing the required readings, research for assessments and completing assessments.

  1. Lectures: 1 x 2 hours weekly; 1 x 1 hour weekly - 36 hours
  2. Tutorials: 1 x 1 hour weekly - 11 hours
  3. Self ­Directed Learning: 8 hours weekly - 114 Hours
    Total: 150 hours
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Linkages to Other Papers

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This paper is core to the major in Māori and Indigenous Studies, a major for the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Social Sciences. This paper is also compulsory for the Bachelor of Tourism and the Bachelor of Environmental Planning. It is an elective paper for the Bachelor of Social Work. Upon successfully passing MAORI102 or MAORI150, students are invited to enroll in the follow on paper MAORI222.
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Prerequisite papers: MAORI102 or TIKA163




Restricted papers: TIKA203, TIKA263, TIKA264, MAOR203

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